Week 6 – The Forms of Capital

Hi all! This week we’re discussing the following readings:

  1. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1986. “The forms of capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education.” (New York, Greenwood), 241-258.
  2. Coleman, James. 1988. “Social Capital and the Creation of Human Capital” American Journal of Sociology. 94: 95-120.

Carefully go over my PowerPoint presentation with voiceover where I explain important ideas and concepts covered in the readings. (To listen to the voiceover you need to go to presentation mode)

Below we have the first scene from the movie The Godfather. Watch it and think about what forms of capital you can identify here:

Lecture Posts Questions:

On the comments section below, address the following questions (answers should be at least 100 words in length and posted by Sunday – This is how participation points are assessed (worth 30% of your final grade!) Please save your comments in a safe document before attempting to post it.

  1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts or comments you would like to share?
  2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?
  3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?
  4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic and social) (re)produce  inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?

23 thoughts on “Week 6 – The Forms of Capital

  1. Mir Mohammod

    1. The powerpoint presentation was short and clear to understand. I found it interesting that both Pierre Bourdieu and James S. Cole were born around the same time and also wrote about the same topic around the same time but were in two completely different parts of the world. Since they wrote about the same topic around the same time, I was wondering how similar Bourdieu’s ideas are compared to Coleman’s? Did they get to read each other’s works or critique each other?
    2. “The Forms of Capital” by Pierre Bourdieu and “Social Capital and the Creation of Human Capital” by James Coleman were good readings that provided a better understanding of the different forms of capital, under Bourdieu’s definition, but also a more in depth understanding of social capital, in terms of Coleman. At times the text was a little complicated to understand but both the author’s provided sufficient details on both the forms of capital but also the forms of social capital.
    3. In the scene from “The GodFather”, there are two forms of capital that can be identified; Economic capital and social capital. In the beginning of the scene, the man speaking to the Don wanted justice for his daughter. He asks the Don to bring justice and in return he would give whatever amount of money the Don asked for. This can be seen as a form of economic capital. However, the Don responds to the man asking for respect first, then tells the man that he will bring justice to his daughter for a favor. The Don tells the man that he may never call for the favor but he is obligated to return the favor if asked. This can be seen as a form of social capital. Under Coleman’s idea of social capital, Coleman explains the forms of social capital. One of the forms Coleman defines was the form of obligations and expectations. The favor the man asked the Don for falls under that form of social capital.
    4. Even though more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, inequality still persists because of the many factors that are used within society to benefit some individuals. If you live in a poor area and have less capital than the average individual in that society, education is less likely to enhance their social mobility. Also, if you live in areas that are underfunded, individuals in these areas are less likely to build connections between other groups of similar interests. Inequality can also be seen in the job market. In places where education is popular, jobs are harder to get because employers tend to ask for more requirements and skills for job positions.

  2. Maria Victoria Ruiz Flores

    1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts or comments you would like to share?
    Everything seemed to be clear, I just had difficulty understanding the chart on the last slide. How two different parents can contribute to the well-being of a child and raise them to the same standards. Then I figured that its thew same idea as how parents send their child to school. All these children are now rising in society and having the same opportunity. I would still like a brief explanation. Is there a certain proximity of parents or is it like group thinking where no communication is needed by parents but same expectations?
    2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?
    All concepts from the readings are understandable, I think what helps is that we can see these forms of capitals and our societies and see firsthand the degree of their impact in education, labor work and other settings. I preferred to read James Coleman, because it was more relatable with the examples, perhaps because he had that view from the United States. They were both very eloquently written and hold very little space for confusion.
    3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?
    In this scene of the Godfather, I see social capital. I see social capital as one’s network and ability to user that for the benefit of climbing a latter. The man is asking for the Godfathers help, he is using his social network in order for his own benefit. I would say there is a bit of cultural capital as well since they share the same ethnicity of being Italian. People of the same background accept and assist one another in society to create a bondage and overcome oppressions that society might press against them.
    4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic and social) (re)produce inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?
    For one the idea of social capital is very huge in the impact of inequality because there is a hierocracy when you have a preference for a certain group. With preference and a proximity to a group there is always “the other,” people who are less likely to benefit from ones thinking. I think the United States, favors white educated men more than people of color that have the same education, and this is because of the social capitol, but like so it interlaps with every other form of capital. Economic capital creates the importance of branding and names, as well as quality. It creates inequality of quality because a bachelors from an ivy league, if you can afford to go to one puts you in a higher ranking than a community college. The opportunity to economically have an advantage of better education, lifestyle, food, clothing creates a better image of oneself in society. Culture capital can make an impact depending a country and region. Many schools are very selective with the image they want to draw into the school, and this is where the inequality is drawn, they’d prefer a culture and or ethnicity and will put them in higher rankings then another. This why prestige colleges are made up of more white students.

  3. Anthonio Roye

    1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts or comments you would like to share?
    The powerpoint was very clear, concise and explained how Bourdieu and Coleman defined the different forms of capitals. The different capitals Bourdieu listed were: economic (tangible resources), social (less tangible and involves social networks and interactions) and cultural which was subdivided into an embodied state (symbolic and cannot be transmitted easily), objectified (books, music paintings explained in a meaningful way) and institutionalized capitals (educational credentials). Finally, the powerpoint explained how social capital can help to create human capital in families by incorporating intergenerational closure (providing social capital to parents).
    2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?
    Bourdieu’s definition of capital is the accumulation of labour whether materialized or embodied form which allows one to use social energy in the living labour form.
    The different capitals Bourdieu listed were: economic (tangible monetary resources like cash), social (less tangible and involves social networks and interactions) and cultural which was subdivided into an embodied state (symbolic and cannot be transmitted easily), objectified (material objects and media, such as writings, paintings, monuments and instruments etc. which should be explained in a meaningful way) and institutionalized capitals (educational credentials). The different types of capitals relate to each other as they can be derived from economic capital.
    Coleman explains the concept of how social capital incorporates and concretizes financial (money), physical (tangible, man-made objects) and human capital (skills and knowledge acquired by an individual) in relations among persons. Three forms of social capital were also discussed including: obligations and expectations, information channels and social norms. The reading also highlights the importance of social capital in students remaining in highschool or dropping, thus concluding that social capital is important in helping to create human capital.
    3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?
    There were many different forms of capital in the video. Human capital (skills and knowledge acquired by an individual) was established when the father said he taught his daughter to not dishonour her family. Cultural (embodied state) when the father mentioned that he raised his daughter in an American fashion.There was social capital throughout multiple areas of the video, for example, the daughter went to the movies with her boyfriend and out for a drive with him and a friend (social interactions) and when the father went to her child’s godfather, Don Corleone (god daughter of his wife) for help to bring the boys who hurt his daughter to justice (social networks). The godfather also established that someday he may also need his help too and that as long as they are friends, his enemies will also be his. There was also some form of economic capital when the father explained that Americans made his fortune and when he offered to pay the Godfather for his services.
    4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic and social) (re)produce inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?
    Even though with mass schooling, we are having a more educated population, there will be a time when wages will start tapering off/ remaining stagnant, because everyone is as qualified as the other, jobs will be harder to get and employees will be easier to replace. That is, there will be greater competition in the working world as more people get qualified in each field, no matter their race, gender/class. However, with greater social networking (social capital), there may be inequalities as people with lower qualifications can get the jobs or opportunities over another person, because they are of higher socioeconomic background, their families know the employers etc. There are also some employers who are biased towards specific cultures/races and so they are less likely to be employed over the preferred races even with the same qualifications. As it relates to human capital (skills and knowledge acquired by an individual), it is more challenging for people from poor families to acquire human capitals as they lack some of the basic resources to do so (economic capital). Also, higher human capital may sometimes produce social stratifications in which inequalities are produced based on the hierarchy of one’s qualifications. That is, persons who are more educated tend to be considered more socially accepted, wealthier and are able to provide basic needs for their families. Therefore, all of the capitals can directly or indirectly reproduce inequalities.

  4. Katelyn Asciutto (she/her)

    1. The PowerPoint was clear, but it left me wanting to know more about intergenerational closure. I understand the want for this closure so that habits, lifestyles, rules etc. that a parent wants their child to learn are reinforced by other adults. There is also a level of trust within these closed relationships that I can see being desirable as a parent. However, I feel like growing up and raising a child in such a closed environment limits the social capital of both the parents and children. Social capital depends heavily on the size of one’s social network, and so if families are in these closed relationships with other families, they are limiting the people they have contact with. The parents are cutting themselves off from other parents that could have connections to jobs or schools or other things that could help their child. This also cuts the children off from meeting other kids that would expand their networks as well. So, I think what my main question is, is are these closed relationships as desirable as they’re made out to be?

    2. The concepts from the readings are clear. I read some of Bourdieu’s work before which made his piece a little easier to understand. I look forward to watching the PowerPoint and class on Wednesday to find out more about how capital can be converted to different forms.
    I also enjoyed Coleman’s piece and found it interesting how not only our education, but the education of our parents, affects our social capital. I always knew that networking was important and that a lot of people succeed in life because of who they know, but now that it has a name and is a studied phenomenon, I’m curious to learn more about the effects that it has on society, especially because social capital tends to affect more than just the individual.

    3. In this scene, I think the most obvious form of capital is social capital. Don Corleone is the patriarch, and literally the “godfather”, in his community. People go to him with requests and if/when he fulfills them, they are indebted to him and he gains social capital. In “Social Capital and the Creation of Human Capital,” Coleman talks about credit slips, saying “in hierarchically structured extended family settings, in which a patriarch (or “godfather”) holds an extraordinarily large set of obligations that he can call in at any time to get what he wants done” (1998: 103). This is reinforced at the end of the scene, with Corleone telling Bonasera, “Someday… I would like to call upon you to do me a service in return” (05:58).
    Financial/economic capital is also present in both Mr. Bonasera and Don Corleone. Bonasera starts the scene saying “America has made my fortune,” so clearly he has some acquired wealth (00:25). Corleone also has a large office with people standing all around him, signifying that he is a man of importance. This, along with his clothing (which shows cultural capital) and the fact that he has the means to bring “justice” to the men that assaulted Bonasera’s daughter, insinuate that he is also a man of wealth.

    4. Similar to the points made in the reading, I think a lot of the inequalities stem from economic capital. Having economic capital allows an individual to gain capital in other forms and propel them further up the socio-economic ladder. This happens because parents with economic capital are able to send their children to top schools and hire tutors to ensure their children get a good education and have an increased human capital. Being able to afford these things is also a form of cultural capital, as it embodies their status. I also think of the college admissions scandal and how people can use their wealth to bribe their child’s way to an increased human capital (although they may not have the knowledge others have, they do end up with the same degree). Having economic capital also insinuates that one’s social connections also have economic capital. Having these ties increases one’s social capital because they know people who rank at the top of society.
    Even though more people are going to and graduating college (human capital), issues such as where they can afford to get their degrees (economic capital) and who they know (social capital) to help them get prestigious and high-paying jobs are why issues of inequality still exist.

  5. Justin Qu

    1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts or comments you would like to share?

    In this week’s PowerPoint, we go over the different types of capital. There are three mentioned by Bourdieu, one being economic capital. Economic capital is what builds cultural capital. Then social capital is the quality of social networks and assets. Overall, I do think the PowerPoint broke the concepts down a bit easier than Bourdieu did. Some of his sentences were very hard to digest. However, the PowerPoint made it easier to understand the fundamentals of social, economic, and cultural capital is.

    2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?

    In the readings this week, I feel like Bourdieu’s way of explaining is more technical. I had trouble understanding the fundamentals of Capitals. I would like to ask about his idea of Economic Capital. He explains it while explaining the other capitals like social and cultural capital. So, I am just confused as to what it actually means when you have economic capital according to Bourdieu. However, I do like how he explains that economic capital is the sole source of all the capital. He says, “The different types of capital can be derived from economic capital, but only at the cost of a more or less great effort of transformation.” (24) In the other reading, by Coleman, I like how he breaks down social capital. He explained it as a way to better society and productive for everyone. Opposite from Bourdieu argued. Bourdieu argued that social capitalism only promotes inequality.

    3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?

    In the scene from The Godfather, I feel like this has to do with social capital and economic capital. The person in the first scene that asks for money and murder for “justice” from Vito is in the process of social capital This is because social capital is what determines the person’s social networks and things outside their family. The person asking, tries to use Vito as an asset but Vito gives a rebuttal that he is not family and questions his loyalty. There is also a sense of economic capital because he asks along the lines of I will give you money. He can ask Vito through his economic capital because he has the money to do so.

    4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic and social) (re)produce inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?

    I feel like this question pertains to Bourdieu’s point on social capital. He feels that when a person has social capital it is more of property for an individual from one’s social status. More social capital means more power in social status’. So people who are unfortunate and do not have good quality social connections fall short, and from there, it creates inequality. In Bourdieu’s perspective, social capital is more beneficial to the individual that wants to move up in society. Also, the source of Bourdieu’s idea on social capital is surrounded by factors like society, culture, and economy. From there it creates a differential in power and social status in individuals. He believes that social capital is not just having a large social network but one’s stratification in society. Already, we see inequality with class systems because the rich will have a higher chance of succeeding compared to the poor with social capital. Cultural capital too is a factor in inequality, especially in education. Education-wise, poor children are more likely to have less cultural capital than those who are more privileged. Students with parents that are educated are more likely to have more cultural capital than those who are less fortunate. Education is not the same in countries. That being said, they teach different norms in cultures. So immigrants tend to have a harder time assimilating to the new culture. Both parents and children have to adapt. Thus, creating inequality in the education field.

  6. Samantha

    1. Everything was very clear. It helped to do the readings first as you suggested because I was confused after reading the paper from Pierre Bourdieu.
    2. I think I had more ease understanding and reading the paper from Coleman. The way he wrote made it easier to understand the concepts. For Bourdieu, I was a bit more confused but I reread parts I had trouble with and understand it a bit more. Doing assignment 2 before completing this lecture post was also helpful because the assignment asked questions I didn’t think to look for. I enjoyed looking at the graphs in Coleman’s paper. It was very clear that he was making a statement about the different forms of capital and how they impact a student’s possibility of dropping out of school. I agreed with Bourdieu when he began discussing the functionalist approach to the function of education. As important as it is to take into consideration the monetary investments that are placed into and received from education, it is also very important to consider the social gain from education.
    3. The first one I was able to identify was social capital, which was mentioned in Coleman’s paper. This is social capital because the Godfather is doing a favor for the man and so the man is obliged to make it up to him. There’s economic capital when the man offers him money. I also think there is human capital in that scene because the Godfather has the skills and capabilities to be able to favor other people, in this instance, killing two people.
    4. Inequality persists because of the differences in capital (human, cultural, economic and social). Each capital has its own importance, so having less of one could impact a person in different ways. For instance, in Coleman’s paper, he discusses the differences in family background and that it can be split three ways: financial, human and social. In a study measuring the dropout rate of students where social capital differed, dropout rates were higher for students who had less social capital. The measurements of some were in single parent households or households with multiple children. Although the educational system is expanding, it doesn’t make up for the other forms of capital that are important to getting ahead. I think in this situation, one can discuss connections and how having more connections, whether from your parents, family members, or community members increases your chances of coming out of that inequality. According to Bourdieu, those who have more capital can use it for different labor, which to me means they can be more powerful. To him, capital changes the random events in life that we think are up to chance. Therefore, inequality persists because of capital differences.

  7. Enajia Clemente (she//her)

    Social and cultural capital was shown in the clip. Social capital was shown in the interaction between the godfather and his relative when he asked about how he had not heard from him in a long time and he came to see him only because he was in need. Cultural capital was represented in the opening of the scene when the relative mentions how he raised his daughter in the American way and the Italian way.

    Inequality will always exist as long as there will be more than one culture in a given space. I think a big part of inequality persisting is because certain cultures have been conflated with certain classes in the past and those ideas have stuck so something that may be particular to a certain culture may automatically be seen as high class or low class.

  8. Joanel Sassone (He/Him/His)

    1.The concepts in the Powerpoint presentation were very clear and understandable. The powerpoint and reading both made me reflect of forms on capital in my own life. In terms of embodied cultural capital, I immediately think of behavior and manners. For example, when visiting other people’s homes my mom always told me to not touch anything or enter any room unless I was given permission. I also had to greet everyone no matter how many people were in a space and it didn’t matter whether I knew them or not. I wouldn’t say that I grew up with much onjectified cultural capital in my home which maybe is why my parents tried to make up for it by making sure all of my siblings went to school (institutionalized cultural capital). As immigrants, I would say that my family has high social capital. For example, when my parents arrived they stayed with various relatives til they were able to afford their own home. They also found employment through neighbors, friends and family. Although, their was no physical transaction of materials such as money, my family thinks of these interactions as favors. My relatives were willing to help each other out because they have the mentality that if they help someone in need, that person will do the same in the case of the roles being reversed.

    2.I found Bordieu’s reading to be a bit difficult to follow. Coleman’s use of examples made it much easier to understand than Bordieu. The most interesting thing to me in Coleman’s reading was when he discussed drop out rates. Drop out rates were extremely lower in Catholic and religious school than in private and public schools. Coleman explained that this is because in religious schools, students and staff are bounded together not just by the institution of the school but also religion. Students and teachers at religious schools feel more of a obligation to attend because of rituals such as praying. The diagrams depicting social closure was also interesting. My main takeaway from that figure is that with social closure, parents have more of an influence over their children. The contribution from each parent might ease the process of raising their offspring.

    3. There are many examples of capital in the opening scene of the Godfather. For example, Bonasera knew that he could go to Don Corleone and ask him for a favor. Don Corleone is part of his social network because his wife is the godmother to Bonasera’s only child. I would argue that there was a lack of cultural capital coming from Bonasera. Although he knew Don Corleone, he didn’t maintain a strong relationship with him by doing things such as inviting him over for coffee. Bonasera was breaking a cultural norm by doing this. He failed to realize that he couldn’t just go to Don Corleone only when he was in need of something, the relationship had to be kept even outside of negotiations.

    4.I believe that inequality persists although more people are acquiring college degrees than before because of many things. As discussed earlier in the semester education can’t do it alone. Experience and networks are two very important things that are encouraged for finding employment after college. By gaining experience through volunteer work or an internship, one learns about the cultural aspects of a field. This might include the routine, the language (slang) or maybe how to use certain machines or softwares. However, there exists inequality in this. Low-income students may not be able to do volunteer or commit to unpaid internships if they need money to pay for school or help out at home with the bills. This could easily limit their social circle. Networking is important because it can increase someone’s accessibility to information depending on who they have relations with. In networking, there is also inequality especially taking into consideration the racial and economic segregation that occurs in places like New York City. Tools like Linkedin and the CPDI office at CCNY can increase someone’s network but as mentioned earlier not everyone is able to take advantage of the opportunities presented to them.

  9. Eliezer Perez

    1) The presentation was very clear. It helped understand some of the things I found confusing. The way Bourdieu writes is very confusing and I found myself rereading the same sentence multiple times. I think the presentation helped me understand some of the concepts better, especially the embodied state of cultural capital.
    2) The Bourdieu reading was a little confusing, while the Coleman reading was a lot clearer for me. Bourdieu mentions that economic capital is at the root of other forms of capital, but I’m having trouble seeing how that’s the case for cultural capital in the embodied states. I think it sounds very hard to measure cultural capital in the embodied state and to prove that it results in the economic capital. The Coleman article was very clear and I fount closure of social networks very interesting. It made me think of how for Latinx and Asian families, extended family is very involved in raising a child and even people who aren’t actually family but are treated as such.
    3) In this scene from The Godfather, I saw cultural capital, economic capital and social capital. We see the cultural capital when the man said that she raised her daughter in the American fashion, he gave her freedom but taught her not to dishonor her family. I see economic capital, because the man speak of the fortune he was able to make in America and he obviously think that with this fortune he can do what the police could not, “justice” by buying Don Corleone’s help. The biggest form of capital displayed in this scene is social capital. Don Corleone’s wife is the godmother to the man’s daughter, so Don Corleone is part of his social network. However, they don’t have a very strong social relationship since they never interacted much and he has neve asked for Don Corleone’s help before afraid of being indebted to him. You can argue that their social relationship is strengthened by the end because the man pays his respects to Don Corleone’s and agrees to help him in the future in exchange for Don Corleone’s help.
    4) Inequality persists today because of vast differences in capital. Poorer families don’t have the economic capital to send their children to best schools (cultural capital in the institutionalized state). Middle class and low-income parents do not the same wide social networks that richer people often take advantage of. In the education scenario, we see these same differences. For example, legacy admission is a form of social capital that disproportionately benefits white people. Even before getting to college, elite private schools and boarding schools have very little diversity both racially and economically for a reason. Low-income parents do not have the economic capital to send their children to elite private institutions, which are essential to creating strong social networks for those children because those institutions help them find internships, jobs, and is also attended by other affluent individuals. After graduating college, these social networks are very important to find a well-paid job. The intergenerational mobility charts on occupations that we have seen this class are a great example of that because they show how children of parents with well paid job stay in the spot in the income distribution and often ends with the same or a similar occupation.

  10. Sophia Youssef (Her)

    1. For the PowerPoint, I think both writers have the same concepts of capital. While I was listening through PowerPoint there wasn’t a lot to question because it was very easy to comprehend. Both writers are thorough in stating how each form of capital is intergraded with one another. As a result, this is how we view the forms of capital. I found it interesting that although could be excellent at something, just because they don’t have the right representation, like a degree of that subject yet they are excellent in that field. Although these writers were in different countries and had different backgrounds they still wrote about the same topics.
    2. I think the readings were pretty self-explanatory because they discussed their views on capital and the categories within the basis of capitalism. I knew there were a lot of forms that are defined in capitalism, but I thought they didn’t intertwine with the other categories to form the basis of capitalism. When Bourdieu discussed the generalized Arrow effect and how our culture’s paintings, monuments, buildings, etc were all shaped by men I found it to be really interesting because when I was taking IB Art in high school I noticed how the majority of history and culture was based on men because a woman wasn’t really allowed to do anything that could give them a name or fame from their husbands, brothers or male figures in their family. That these men shaped our childhood and the world we know today. Cultural capital is a very important thing that not many people realize how much it affects us. With Coleman, he introduced social capital which is the parallel financial capital, physical capital and human capital. From the PowerPoint, it was pretty well explained, but while reading the papers they both went more in-depth with their ideas on capital and how it works in our society. The concept of social capital is in three forms that are identified, obligations and expectations, which we use to depend on to trust our own social environment and relationship. It’s interesting that he said that social capital in family and social capital outside of the family in the adult community surrounds schools with evidence of reducing the probability of kids dropping out of high school.
    3. I have never seen “The Godfather” but after this clip, I will finally watch it. I heard it was a classic movie but now I know why, I see there was a little bit of everything in the clip shown to us. For social capital, I saw that people came to “The Godfather”, Don Corleone who grants people wishes like a genie of sorts. Taking care of requests that people ask for to do by him for money because they have no other option. I think this also ties into human capital because of how they have no other hope and that the law didn’t help them the way they wanted to, so they had to take matters into their own hand. There was also financial capital because with each request a client makes Don Corleone does what they request but with a price. But with Mr. Bonasera, he asked why he never came to him before, why if he just became his friend that he would’ve granted his favor, that if Mr. Bonasera just acknowledged that he was his daughter’s Godfather he would have done it for free because it was family. Coming to America does bring fortune, freedom, and dreams. But America is also messed up in its laws, that men who hurt his daughter can run a free man with no penalty. This ties us to justice, justice is a social structure that society has made to give someone, a hierarchy power to decide something, like a judge or The Godfather.
    4. I think the reason for so much inequality even if more people are going to college and/or get a higher education is because there will ALWAYS be someone better than you, someone, who is more qualified, with more experience, better work ethics, more knowledge, etc. People will hire people who show better qualities in the workforce. Where if they hire someone then they will not regret hiring them because they give them what their money’s worth. I think that’s how the saying goes…. I’m not sure. But anyways, inequality is in all forms that of capital because it causes competition. That where will always be someone better than you, who has more experience, more knowledge, better work ethics than you, which leads to inequality. Inequality will always persist because of race as well, college degrees don’t always guarantee a job position if you’re qualified. Many people get degrees in hopes they get a job, but sometimes the job they want needs a higher degree or their degree helps them get a job but it is not a job that they’re very pleased with.

  11. Meghan Ndiaye

    After reading the two readings I was a bit confused because of the examples giving in the readings. However after going over the PowerPoint and the examples you used to explain each form helped me understand Coleman’s forms of social capital much better.
    Both readings were very informative. However after reading Coleman’s reading I was a bit confused on his social capital forms and how they tie into each other. When Coleman mentions actors and action is that an example he is giving for social capital or does actors and actions tie into social capital? I never really looked beyond the word capital and what it means. Because of these readings I now know that capital has so much more to it and that there are different forms of it.
    After watching that scene a few times I would say the forms of capital being portrayed is social and cultural capital. The Godfather holds power and social statues and has the skills and knowledge to do certain things. Within cultural capital The Godfather projects both the embodied and objectified state. Everything he knows he learned over time from the people around him. His clothing and accessories also give him the power he has. He is always dressed clean and presentable. Within the movie everyone is in a tight community. You know who works for who and who is tied together which helps their community function properly.
    Inequality persists because people still have the mentally that people are below them in any way. Women or POC aren’t getting jobs in higher places because those that are already there feel that they can not contribute to the company because of their gender and race. It’s the fact that we are in 2021 and people still feel that a woman’s only job is supposed to be at home. Inequality will always persist as long as people are still in their ways and don’t change how they view things.

  12. Yassine

    1. The PowerPoint this week was clear, short, and concise. I had enough time to rewatch and focus on key details. The three forms of capital, which include economic, cultural, and social capital. The concepts introduced made it easier to understand Bourdieu’s ideology. The last chart of the powerpoint made sense to me in terms of explaining intergratoinal closure between two parents who were split with two children living with each parent.
    2. In the reading most of the concepts, ideas, and measurements were clear. I was able to get a fond understanding of social capital in the “Social Capital and the Creation of Human Capital” by Colemen James. Criticisms and revisions of oversocialized conception of man in modern sociology alongside with how social capital is structured. However, the reading by Pierre Bourdieu it was quite difficult to understand except for when the conversions of economic capital were discussed towards the end of the reading. One quote located in the notes that

    1. Yassine

      I personally did not understand was “it goes without saying that social capital is so totally governed by the logic of knowledge and acknowledgment that it always functions as symbolic capital.”
      3. In the scene from The Godfather I saw a form of cultural capital was presented when the first guy talked about how he raised his daughter in the American style/culture. Another form of cultural capital was when she resisted drinking to keep her honor that represented her family/culture. Social capital is also presented in this short scene as well. It is shown as the guy whose daughter was beaten was trying to ask someone of higher status and power to do a service to kill the men who hurt his daughter. This source of networking is an example of social capital.
      4. Differences in the forms of capital in terms of human, cultural, economic, and social capital do produce inequalities in society. If we were to compare families who had a family culture of attending college and getting a degree to a family who didn’t believe in the school system we are likely to see a difference in economic capital, income, and knowledge. Opportunities exist also within families of higher status already compared to ones who are at the bottom quintile which might explain why there are inequalities that exist even when more people are attending college.

  13. Lei Liu

    1.The PowerPoint was very clear. At the beginning, the slides introduced and explained the three basic forms of capital, namely economic capital (resources), cultural capital (music, books, paintings), and social capital (social network). In the social capital in The family includes financial capital, human capital and social capital. You also gave an example to explain (Asian parents bought two sets of textbooks, one for their children, and one for themselves to learn and teach their children better.)
    2.Bourdieu, explained three forms of capital that can determine peoples’ social position: economic capital (resources), social capital (social network) and cultural capital (refers to the collection of symbolic elements such as skills, tastes, posture, music, clothing, mannerisms, material belongings, credentials, etc.).Coleman, James’ reading studies three forms of social capital: obligations and expectations, information channels, and social norms. Describes the role of closure in the social structure in promoting these first and third forms of social capital. The impact of the lack of social capital of second-year high school students on dropping out before graduation is analyzed.
    3.In the “Godfather” scene, economic capital and social capital are included. At the beginning it mentioned Americans made his fortune and at the end it mentioned how much money he needed to pay. It may also include cultural capital. It is mentioned in the scene that his daughter has found a boyfriend in Italy.
    4.Even if there are more people going to college and getting degrees than before, inequality still exists. Because of social capital, some people know some people with social status or power in the social process. These capitals may be easy for them to get a job. Economic capital, some children living in families with good family conditions, usually get the best education and daily necessities. In cultural capital, certain shopping malls may prefer employees from a certain country because of the language.

  14. Cha-Neice Gordon

    The PowerPoint was very clear and precise. I do not have any questions or comments.
    From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?
    Both economic and social capital are exemplified in the scene from The Godfather. The moment when the man is asking the Don to get justice and return his daughter in exchange for however much money he requests, economic capital is displayed. As for social capital, the moment the Don told the man that he wanted respect in return and a favor if he were ever to ask. The reason this fits is because one of Coleman’s definitions of social capital are expectations and obligations.
    Inequalities still and always exist in society. Although more individuals now than before have been getting degrees, some people are still at a disadvantage. Race, ethnicity, education, economic status, etc are many factors that will affect an individuals stature in society and will cause a constant inequality within society. Careers that are reliant on degrees and higher education create an inequality for those who were unable to continue their education due to reasons such as financial and/or situational/ personal such as having children at a young age or taking care of elderly parents.

  15. Luisa Fajardo Rodriguez

    1)The powerpoint was very clear. The powerpoint presentation was also short compare to the previous ones. Pierre Bourdieu and James S. Cole both wrote about the same topic around the same time but we’re in two completely different parts of the world.
    2)We can see these sources of capital in action in our communities, as well as the extent to which they have an effect on education, labor, and other areas.I enjoyed reading James Coleman because the examples were more relatable, because he had that perspective from the United States.They were both written in a clear and concise manner, with little space for ambiguity.
    3)In this scene of the Godfather, I see social capital as one’s network and ability to user that for the benefit of climbing a latter. The man is pleading with the Godfathers for assistance, and he is taking advantage of his social network for his own gain. I’d say there’s some cultural capital as well, given that they’re both Italian. People from similar backgrounds embrace and help one another in society to form bonds and resolve oppression’s that society can impose.
    4)Individuals with economic capital are able to acquire capital in other ways, propelling them further up the socioeconomic ladder.
    This occurs because wealthy parents can send their children to prestigious schools and employ tutors to ensure that their children receive a good education and develop their human capital. Being able to afford these items is also a source of cultural capital, as it signifies their social standing. For instance in the incident of several public celebrities figures that were involved with a college scandal in which the celebrities hired/paid someone to falsified information to get their kids into Ivy League schools. People with capital implies that one’s social networks have financial capital as well. Since they meet people at the top of society, having these connections increases one’s social capital. Despite the fact that more people are attending and graduating from college, problems such as where they can attend to up taint their degrees and the people who they know to help them get them prestigious and high-paying jobs remain. Connections are very important in todays society and without the right connections the best jobs would not be up taint as easily.

  16. Yesenia Bonilla (She/Her/)

    1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts or comments you would like to share?
    The PowerPoint for this week was extremely helpful as it went over the three types of capital that Bourdieu discusses in his work but in a more simplified manner. While the concept of economic capital and social capital was straightforward and easy to understand, I was still a bit unsure of cultural capital. This being since it was divided into three: embodied, objectified, and institutionalized. So, cultural capital required more understanding, at least for me, and noting the differences of these forms within cultural capital. However, it was also more so trying to picture these forms through examples and that is why the PowerPoint was really helpful as it mentions several examples for each.

    2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?
    This week’s readings were definitely packed with so much information and were especially filled with new ideas. Bourdieu’s work was more complex than Coleman’s work as it covered three forms of capital rather than just one. For the most part, what he discussed in the reading was pretty clear especially after looking at the PowerPoint and rereading some parts a couple of times. However, one thing that I wish he did in this reading is dedicate a section to just economic capital like he did for social and cultural capital. Though, he does explain economic capital through the other two types of capital and during the “Conversions” section he explains how the different types of capital derive from economic growth. I really enjoyed Coleman’s work, especially the part when he discusses how social capital relates to high school dropouts. One interesting fact he discusses is that of how test scores can decline depending on sibling position and the number of children in a family.

    3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?
    Two forms of capital that I can identify in the scene from The Godfather are that of social capital and economic capital. Social capital can be identified since it relates to social networks and the idea of obligations and expectations as discussed in Coleman’s paper. In this case, the father of the daughter who he is trying to get justice for, attempts to use his connections to get this justice. He goes to Vito, the godfather, for help because he was under the impression that Vito would what he asked for. This then would lead to economic capital as the father is essentially paying for a “service”. He offers Vito money if he would agree to kill the men who hurt his daughter thus, demonstrating an act of providing monetary resource.

    4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic and social) (re)produce inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?
    Inequality still persists through the varying levels and types of capital that individuals possess. For example, having social capital is extremely helpful as it means an individual has connections that would improve or bring other opportunities and available resources for growth. As Bourdieu mentions in his work, the social relationships that are established are considered to be useful in the short or long term. Coleman further emphasizes the role that social capital has through that of information channels. It is essentially through these channels where individuals can use their connections to their benefit by gaining the right information needed. Furthermore, economic capital contributes to this inequality as there are individuals who have the ability to invest in resources that put them at an advantage because they have the funds to do so meanwhile others can’t.

  17. Karla Marin

    This week’s PowerPoint was much shorter in comparison to the other week’s slide’s, but I still found it to be equally as helpful and informative. It defiantly helped me better understand some terms that were mentioned in this week readings. I will say that the on slide 6 there was a chart that represented James S. Coleman’s Social Capital in the creation of Human Capital, which I found quite confusing and difficult to understand. The explanation that was tied with that chart was also difficult to understand.
    I found Pierre Bourdieu’s reading to be a bit easy to read, I feel like there was a lot of information that was clearly explained. The reading defined what Capital was and also informed me about the different forms of capital that exists, such as social and cultural capitals. I liked Bourdieu’s way of explaining the forms of capital in comparison to the second reading by James Coleman. The second reading was a bit harder to understand and I found it to be quite dense in comparison to the first reading. Coleman discussed similar points that were discussed in Bourdieu’s reading, but the information was presented in a way that was a lot to take in and harder to grasp. Coleman focused on Social and Human Capital and how they both facilitate productive activity. In Coleman’s reading the same chart that was shown in the PowerPoint was also discussed but I still found it to be quite confusing.
    In this scene of the Godfather I believe that cultural, economic and social capital are being represented. The way that he talks about how he raised his daughter shows a form of cultural capital and when both me were interacting you see social capital and economic capital.

  18. Stanley Lopez

    1-) As always the power point presentation was really clear and easy to understand. It was easy to understand the difference between all the types of capitals, for example Economic capital being money and resources, cultural capital being the behaviors and skills that people gather from their culture and social capital being the networking that people have. The last slide of the powerpoint I think was a great way to end this topic because it helped me grasp the topic better.
    2-) The readings were dense to be honest. Although there was a lot of information presented on the readings I think it communicated that information really well, it was just long. Both readings gave their own ideas on capital, Bourdieu explained capital in his own way and it gave the difference between the capitals and Coleman did the same but in his own way as well. For me Bourdieu’s reading was easier and more interesting than Coleman’s reading because it gave examples and explained three different types of capital while Coleman only explained one. I really liked the cultural capital concept because I feel that it’s unique to people, because some people can have the same economic capital as you and maybe the same social capital, but cultural capital is based on your culture and it makes you different from other cultures.
    3-) As I mentioned in last class I have never seen the Godfather, but this clip from it made me want to watch it. I feel that social, cultural and economic capital are shown in this clip even if they don’t like it. At first I only saw economic capital, the power that the Godfather has and his economic status which makes people fear him. But I had to see the clip twice to find the rest of the capital shown here, in terms of cultural capital we can see at the beginning when the first guys starts talking on how he raised his daughters with honor and cultural value, you can also see it when the Godfather talks to him and asks for respect, there some culture behind that (When the Godfather’s hand is kissed). Lastly, the social capital we can see in the Godfather and his connections, that’s why the first guy came to him to ask him a favor, because he has connections that can make that favor happen.
    4-) In terms of economic and social capital I think there will always be a difference, no matter if everyone goes to college or not, because people have different opportunities. For example, let’s say that I go to college and my friend goes to college too. My friend’s father is very famous and rich, but my father it’s not. My friend will have more opportunities than me because of who his father is, there will be always someone who is “better than you”, or someone who is richer than you. This will not change even-though everyone graduates from college. In terms of cultural capital I think it’s simple, many cultures exist in the world, and each culture has its own traditions, this is what causes the difference in culture capital, the fact that cultures are so diverse from each other. But as I said I think this is a good thing because it makes people more “unique”, however I think that there should be a balance in social and economic capital.

  19. Sharharra Pettway

    1. The powerpoint presentation was clear. It also gave a little more clarity to the perspectives that were given from the readings. Especially helped to understand clearly the definitions of the different forms of capital.
    2. The readings were clear but I did find myself rereading some sections. In a way both readings explain how the different types of capital relates and compares to other forms of capital and its effects in society.
    3. There were a few forms of capital displayed in the scene from The Godfather. One was social capital where the man used his connection and relationship and came to the Godfather for a favor to get rid of the men who harmed his daughter. The second was cultural capital and an example of this was how the Godfather felt it was disrespectful of the man to come and ask him for a favor but doesn’t make an effort to keep up a friendship or relationship with him.
    4. The different forms of capital can produce and reproduce inequalities in society. This is because the access to them is unequal and that affects opportunities. Even in an expanding educational system, when more people are going to college and getting degrees, it creates competition between people in places like the job market. For example since some don’t have equal access to social capital, where they don’t know many people to give references or like some have people that can put them onto opportunities where others have to really go on a search and vouch for themselves.

  20. Mariyam Mohammed

    1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts, or comments you would like to share?
    The Powerpoint was simple and straightforward this week. I understood the concepts compared to the other weeks. I found it interesting how two different scholars wrote on the same subjects even though they are from two different places geographically. Yet, the concepts were similar to how people lead their lives regardless of where we live.
    2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements, and ideas clear?
    The concepts presented this week were apparent compared to all the other weeks. Perhaps it is Colemnen’s reading and how I could connect specific ideas to real-life situations or the fact that he gave real-life examples to make his views clear. In the model, he showed regarding building trust with the community and how the community members trust each other enough to bid money, and each person receives their money at the end of the month. In Sri Lanka, they did the same in communities, and I saw how organizations are more tied and trusted each other compared to here. Social capital is indeed essential and connected to economic prosperity, as we see in both readings.
    3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?
    From the Godfather scene, we see social capital. The man came to ask for a favor from the Godfather, offering money. So we see economic capital along with social capital. There is also a cultural economy because they share the same ethnicity and can connect and trust each other.
    4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic, and social) (re)produce inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?
    Although people attend college and get degrees, inequality still exists because different people from different backgrounds receive and live differently. The experiences and the people in their community leaders and help each other differently. As Colemen mentioned, networking can lead to opportunities that then affect economic capital. If the networking within the community is lacking, people have to climb up the social ladder.

  21. Kelly Zhumi (she/her)

    1. From my PowerPoint presentation, what still isn’t very clear? Any questions, thoughts or comments you would like to share?
    I believe the PowerPoint presentation was clear and concise in reviewing the two assigned readings. We are introduced to different forms of capital from Bourdieu’s and Coleman’s perspectives. I found it interesting how both perspectives intertwine with one another. Bourdieu discusses economic capital, cultural capital, and social capital while Coleman discusses social capital in the family, which included financial and human capital as well. On the final slide, the explanation of the graph provided clarity on what Coleman meant in social capital influencing human capital in families. It emphasized the importance of intergenerational closure, parents having social connections with other parents can create an equal playing field for children to not feel left behind and create connections for the future is not only in education but in other matters as well.
    2. From the readings are all concepts, measurements and ideas clear?
    I found Bourdieu’s reading a bit easier to understand than in Coleman’s but after reviewing the PowerPoint presentation, I have a better understanding. Each reading did provide clear information on these new concepts and provided examples to get their point across. Bourdieu discusses three forms of capital: economic, cultural, and social. It was the first time being introduced to these concepts; I wasn’t aware that these types of capitals existed, but I see now how it influences human development. Bourdieu goes in depth in what cultural capital consists of, which is the embodied state (symbolic capital), objectified (ability to comprehend the arts you own), and institutionalized (educational credentials; access to share knowledge). Coleman’s reading goes into detail about the importance of social capital and how it can easily influence financial and human capital.
    3. Explain what form(s) of capital you can identify in the scene from The Godfather?
    There are various forms of capital in the scene of The Godfather. For instance, we see social capital into play since we see that Bonasera is acquainted with Don Corleone since Don Corleone’s wife is the godmother of Bonasera’s daughter. However, we see that Bonasera lacks cultural capital since he had not provided the proper respect nor maintained a relationship with Don Corleone until he truly needed something. Despite that, Bonasera gives the impression that he is demanding Don Corleone for help instead of asking since he didn’t invite him to a meal. There’s also financial capital that comes into play since Don Corleone requires a certain price to fulfill a client’s needs.
    4. How do you think differences in the forms of capital (human, cultural, economic and social) (re)produce inequalities in society, even in a scenario of an expanding educational system? In other words, if more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, why does inequality persist?
    If more people are going to college and getting degrees than before, inequality still persists because there continue to be various factors that can hinder someone’s success. For instance, people from high-income families can provide social capital for their children and they can have a job set for them after attending university while people from low and middle-income families can’t provide that luxury and have to work hard to gain these social networks. Furthermore, there are instances where women and POC aren’t paid the same salary as white men while working the same job position.

  22. Azizah Al-Antri

    The powerpoint was a great way to summarize the main points of Bourdieu’s article on the forms of capital and Coleman’s article on social capital. It was clear and interesting, especially when you discussed Coleman’s concept of social capital. The examples provided a better idea of what social capital is. I’m a little still confused on the last side and the diagram, it seems unclear what intergenerational closure is and what the diagram is trying to present and I was hoping for a further explanation on it.

    The readings were a bit dense and especially Pierre Bourdieu’s writing style was difficult to grasp a little. However I understood most of his concepts and interpretations of economic, cultural, and social capital. As for Coleman’s reading, I understood most of his ideas of social capital and appreciated the examples he provided of social capital and how it creates human capital. I also found the ideas of social capital very interesting and relatable because our social connections and networks really establish our social position in society and we see that in our everyday lives. Also, I agree with his ideas in how a parent’s investment in a child’s education and skills can create human capital and provide them a step further in growth for the future. I found it interesting that Bourdieu’s views of the forms of capital were more pessimistic because he thought it created more inequalities and only benefited the elites. He believed that hierarchies are put in place so that people at the bottom struggle to climb to the top. On the other hand, Coleman discusses social capital as more positive because it is our social networks, connections, family and friends, web of interactions, and the quality of these relationships that create social capital, and it can also create human capital.

    The clip from The Godfather displays social capital, because the main figure Don Corleone seems like a powerful social figure with many connections and networks which puts him at the top of the social hierarchy. People come to him for requests and help, and he can provide whatever they wish if they pay him respect. He was hesitant in helping the man asking for justice for his daughter because he wasn’t being respectful and was not a really close friend, asking him for a favor like revenge when he needs it, but never inviting him to drink a cup of coffee like he said. After showing him respect and pleading by kissing his hand and trying to be his friend, he grants the man’s wish. Economic capital was also shown because Don Corleone seems rich and the head of some mafia, and he has men all around him which shows that he not only has high social status but also high economic status. His clothing and office are also examples of his wealth.

    Inequality still persists even when more people are going to college and getting degrees than before because some people have higher advantages than others. People with social and economic capital especially have an upper hand to climb the social ladder and towards upward mobility when they have the economic resources like money to invest in college, and social networks, resources, and connections to provide them with higher advantages of success. I feel that even if everyone goes to college, some people with the money and social networks will gain more success and receive better jobs and create more inequality because of their resources that they have that others don’t. For example, upper class people and the elites have a higher chance of going to the top colleges because their parents invest in their education since they have the money, and also have the social connections to receive opportunities such as internships that can provide them a step ahead of others towards success and upward mobility. That is how the rich stay rich while the poor have to struggle and work twice as hard to gain some kind of success, and this is an example of why there is still inequality even if many people are receiving an education.

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